Foremost, it's important to understand that the individual design analysis concepts overlap. This may be particularly important when examining a common object, such as a clock.
The affordance is that this clock works the same as a standard clock, with hour,
minute, and second hands. The user would expect the alarm to sound at the designated
time, and for the alarm sound to cease after a short amount of time. The
user expects to be able to change the actual and alarm
time, using given functions, such as the Alarm button. The user
affords that the alarm can be turned on and off via the On/Off combo box. Also within
this application, the Set Alarm and Set Current Time forms are physically similar. Thus, the
user affords that the forms have similar functionality and usage. The action to Set Current
Time is not obvious, with little perceptual affordance, since it is accessed by double-clicking on
clock face. However, this option is set up as so, because it should not be
commonly performed. The application displays sound affordance, when the alarm's audio activates.
Users are physically constrained, limited to the several actions on the clock. Users are only allowed to see and set the current time and alarm time. Within setting times, users are restricted to numeric entries. None of the forms may be maximized, and only the Clock form may be minimized. This constraint keeps the forms small and aesthetically correct. The objects herein are locked and may not be changed to prevent erroneous actions. The clock hand movements are semantically constrained to the upright, proper clockwise movement, to convey the correct time. Logical constrains keep the frmClock from displaying any extra information on the main form, i.e. logically the user prefer only to view the Set Alarm form when they need to change the alarm time.
The Conceptual Model is distinct and apparent. The concept of this clock application is a standard alarm clock, with the actual time shown on the dial. Users conceive that without input, the clock will continue to function normally. Users predict the alarm auditory effects to occur when the current time is equivalent to the alarm time, as shown by the alarm hand. Additionally, the users conceive that the alarm will only sound if the alarm is set to On, as shown in the combo box.
Visibility in the design makes the conceptual model
apparent. Users interpret the alarm functionality via the Alarm button and
the red Alarm hand, including the ability to predict the alarm time via its
positioning. The alarm hand is distinguished by its red color, contrasting from the others in black. With all hands moving in
a clockwise direction, with reasonable judgment, the user perceives that the clock is working correctly. The alarm
ON/OFF combo box contains a down arrow, letting the user imply that they make
click on the arrow to make changes. Alarm ON/OFF combo box is shown on the main form
and prevents the user from searching form to form to check the alarm status. Set Alarm and
Set Time forms become visible when called by an event-driven action, as needed.
Each function in this application serves one purpose, and therefore emits one action when used. These relationships are in a 1:1 mapping scheme. Their actions are singular, and have natural effect on the application. For example, clicking on the Alarm button opens the Set Alarm interface.
User feedback consists of a physical change and audio sound. Physical change occurs when the user double-clicks on the clock face, and single-clicks on the Alarm button. These events call forms where the user may change a time setting. If a time setting is altered, the user is given feedback by a position change in the clock hands. Additionally, feedback error messages occur if the user enters an invalid time in the Set Alarm form. Auditory feedback occurs, if the alarm is on and if the alarm time is equal to the current time. When true, an audio alarm sounds for a duration of 5 minutes. The design of this clock application was constructed to be simple and functional. The visual appeal may be strengthened by enhanced background graphics, and more vibrant interface colors.